Monthly Archives: December 2021

Luck v Chance v Skill Reflection

When playing a game of any kind, whether it’s a board game, card game, or another game, there will always be different ways to win. Chance, luck, and skill in games come with many advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the type of game you are playing, there are so many different ways to win. 

The first way to win a game would be from chance. When it comes to a game that is reliant on chance, the player is strongly influenced by an outside factor such as cards or dice. Chance is completely based on probability. The games that involve chance are strongly influenced by some type of randomizing device and cannot be won with strategy. While a player may be able to make certain choices that could influence different outcomes, the outcome of the game really is down to chance. 

An example of a game that involves chance would be Can’t Stop. In this game, players are given four dice, eleven markers for players, and three neutral-colored markets. The game is played on a board that has eleven columns that represent the numbers two through twelve. With these columns, there is a different number of spaces that are equal to the probability of the player rolling that number on the two dice. An example of this would be 12 having the smallest number of spaces, three, which makes it the hardest space to roll. On the other hand, space 7 has the largest number of spaces, making it the easiest space to roll. To play this game a player rolls four dice and then divides that dice into two pairs, followed by totaling up the numbers of the pairs. An example of this would be a player rolling a one, two, three, and four and they would be able to group the dice as five and six. Next, the player will use the neutral-colored markers to mark their place on the board in the specific column that they chose. This will bring that layering closer to winning the game. While the player continues through the game they will continue to move up in the column that they have already marked until they decide to spot(Canakci). When a player decides to spot rolling in their column, another player is able to pick up their column and continue from where the other player has stopped. This game does involve some aspects of strategy as the player can decide if they would like to spot rolling, but it is really up to chance for who wins the game. This is just one example of a game involving chance. Many chance games can be seen in Casino games such as blackjack. 

Skill in games is defined as the player’s learned ability to perform an action or move with predetermined goals for the move. This is done with good execution and often takes a large amount of time and energy to learn. Games that are determined by skill are way more complex than games that require luck or chance and will normally have more rules and restrictions compared to them. Players create strategies prior to their move and try to calculate the probability of the other player making a move. There are also many different types of intelligence that players that are very skillful possess. The first type is spatial intelligence. This is the player’s ability to recognize and manipulate the patterns of wife spaces and patterns of the game. The next type of intelligence is logical-mathematical intelligence. This is the player’s ability to analyze problems logically and carry out mathematical operations to investigate the issues they might encounter during the game. Another type of intelligence would be interpersonal intelligence. This is the players’ capability to understand other players’ intentions, motivations, and desire to be able to either work or beat them. 

Chess is the best-known game that requires skill and strategy. There are many rules in chess in regards to what the different pieces can do and how they can move on the board. To be a skillful chess player, the player must be able to predict that their opponents moved ahead of time. Players need to continue to practice their skills to be able to develop the skills needed to have a great advantage over their opponent. Another game that involves skill is Cantan. The game is about managing and negotiating with other players. This game is about skill because the player needs to practice playing the game to be able to example strategies that they have created. When they start to develop the skills needed, they will be able to know how to manage their resources and how to properly negotiate with the other players. 

Lastly, games can require luck to win. Players have no effect on their luck as it can always change from game to game or during the game. There is no way to control a player’s luck or influence it, making it the most fair game in the grand scheme of things. There are many game mechanics that use luck to determine the game such as using dice, cards, or a spinning tool. When a player uses a dice that determines if they win based on the number of even numbers they get, it is truly up to luck to determine the outcome. 

There are many examples of luck-based board games. One example of this type of game would be bingo. When playing this game every player recovers a card with various numbers on it. There is a host that will draw numbers from a spinning ball holding many circular balls with numbers and letters. When a number has been selected players will check their number sheet to see if they have that number in the column of that same letter. The number that was picked was completely random, which is why this game is completely down to luck as it cannot be influenced in any way. 

Game Mechanics Research Paper: Dice Rolling

How do players actually interact with a game? To be able to take any action at all during a game, players have to use game mechanics. Game mechanics can be either abstract or concrete objects and are used to interact with the game world. The article, “Defining Game Mechanics”, by Miguel Sicart goes into depth on the definition of game mechanics and how the methods are used in different games. Sicart has defined it as “using concepts from object-oriented programming, as methods invoked by agents, designed for interaction with the game state”(Sicart). Game mechanics is a tool that allows players to foster repetitive play, motivation, fairness, skill-building, exploration, learning, and focus among other experiences. They are used with a purposeful design that takes into account the abilities and actions that the player may want to make. It is often used in board games to be able to move around the board, such as using dice to decide how many spaces you will move on a beginning and end game. Not only are they the rules and procedures that guide the player through the game, but they also provide structure for how the game will continue after the player makes the actions. For example, in the game Scrabble, the main game mechanic is drawing and placing letters on the board to score points and win the game. When players use less frequent letters such as “Z” or “Q” they can earn extra points, making players more focused on using those letters. Game mechanics also provide constraint and give players agency during the game. It also promotes fair gameplay and balance between the players. There are various different types of Game mechanics that would include, but are not limited to; acting, alliances, dice rolling, events, hand movements, income, lose a turn, matching, memory, ownership, race, and role-playing(“Dice Rolling”). In this research essay, I will go into depth on the game mechanic of dice. 

Dice are used in a game to provide a random chance that something will happen, and the chance of it happening is confident with every turn a player takes. It provides fairness and complexity to a game’s design and allows everyone the equal opportunity to win the game. The history of dice was expected to be used before recorded history, although it is uncertain where they originated. Dice was actually the very first game to ever be played. The oldest known dice were a part of a backgammon game set in southeastern Iran, at the Burnt City, which was estimated to be from 2800-2500 BCE. There have been claims from Sophocles that the Palameded invested dice in about 1400 BC where they were formed using cubical stones and clay with numbers on their faces. Archeologists have found board games that date as far back as the stone age which contained 49 small carved painted stones. Continuing on, other early dice games were created by painting a flat side of a stick that would be tossed in the air in unison for the player’s turn(Bruning). 

When you think of dice, a six-sided die is what comes to mind as it is the most common. Roll and move is the most basic dice mechanic. With this mechanic, you will roll the dice and it will land on a number, for example, a “4” or an “8”. In a game, a player will roll a one six-sided die and move a player or pawn to that number of spaces on the board. This type of mechanic is known as the “roll to set a number” as the value that you have rolled will decide the number of spaces that the player can move. 

There are many different types of dice. The first type of dice is the single dice, which could be a d20, d6, or a d10 dice. These dice are used in many different games such as Monopoly, Cantan, and Parcheesi. In these games, the player has the same chance to roll a certain number or combination for every single turn they have. This is a key factor for dice games because it is designed to leave it up to chance for the dice to land on different numbers to ensure there is randomness. When you are using this type of random chance in a game, players might try and plan the potential numbers they could receive and make a plan for what they should do while they wait for their turn. In the game Catan, players have to decide where to build their settlements. The way they obtain resources is through rolling the dice and matching the tiles that they are next to. This makes it harder for the player to get the resources and makes some of the more rare and hard to get than others. In regards to the science behind rolling a dice, there is a higher probability of rolling certain numbers, such as number 7, which makes the game more interesting. Having a distribution of the probability of getting a specific number on a roll makes the game more exciting and interesting for the players(Harron). 

Dice mechanics can be used as a positive or negative consequence in games. In the game Parcheesi, there is a positive and negative aspect that comes from needing to roll a certain number to move the player’s piece from the starting place. This not only adds tension to the game but also adds excitement as the player will get more hopeful that they will roll that number. In other games such as Cantan, there are positive, negative, and neutral rolls that the player can get. For example, if a player were to roll a 7, rather than being able to gather more resources, the player must move a token that would allow a different player to steal their resources. This will make the number 7 either a desired or undesired roll for many players depending on their current resources. Overall, the dice rolling mechanics of having a positive and negative result will add a desired result for the players and even create tension in the game. 

There are many games that use the dice mechanic as number matching. This is the oldest dice mechanic that has evolved from many games. In many games that use this element, players will roll the dice and land on a six for example. In the game Backgammon when you roll a six you might end up landing on an enemy piece. On the other hand, rolling an 8 might put you in a vulnerable position for attack making the game more complex. There are a lot of sub-mechanics that are used to make the game more interesting. The game Can’t Stop, introduced the idea of a multiple dice combo. The player will roll four dice and make two sets of two, which produces a larger set of possible numbers that you could match with. This game also introduced the can’t stop sub-mechanic, a mechanic that allowed the player to continue to roll the dice, but if the player does not get the correct number, they lose everything. 

There are many different types of core dice mechanics in a game. While there are many different types, the most common are linear, bell-curved, and dice pool. As I previously mentioned, a linear dice mechanic is the d20 and the d100 dice. The second most common type of dice mechanic is the bell curve. This is the 2d6, 3d6, 2d10, and higher type of dice. When you use this type of mechanic, players will take the total of the dice against a target number to win the game. The most important feature that this type offers is that the bell curve fudge dice are functionally totaling the dice. Lastly, the dice pool involved the WoD and Sr dice(Appelcline). Players will roll the pool of dice and count the number of results that hit the target number. The shape of this curve changes in different games as it is based on the total number of dice. 

Overall, dice have been used in many different styles of games as a game mechanic. This could include role-playing games, board games, card games, and even video games. The dice mechanic is defined as “using concepts from object-oriented programming, as methods invoked by agents, designed for interaction with the game state”(Sicart). The dice mechanic not only fosters repetitive play, motivation, fairness, skill-building, exploration, learning, but it also promotes focus during the gameplay. Using dice introduces fairness and complexity into a game’s design and allows everyone the equal opportunity to win the game. While it is not certain, using dice as a game mechanic has dated back to the stone age. There are also many different types of core dice mechanics in a game, which include linear, bell-curved, and dice pools. The different types affect the probability of getting a certain number when the player rolls the dice. Dice will continue to be used as one of the most popular game mechanics and has been used for thousands of games already. 

Movie Review: Accepted

The movie Accepted exemplifies many leadership qualities from various characters. The movie is about a high school student who did not focus on his grades and was doing poorly in school. When I came to apply to colleges and universities, he was denied admission to every single school. He was scared to admit to his family and other classmates of his reality, so he chose to create a made up institution called the South Harmon Institute of Technology. He and his friend found an abandoned property near his hometown and began to fix up and start the illusion of this school. The main character, Bartleby Gaines, and his friend show leadership in their journey to make the school. 

Bartleby shows leadership through the entire movie. His first act of being a leader was in the creation of the school. Not only did he come up with the plan to make the fake school, but he also located a place to pretend where it is. His parents were very adamant about dropping their son off to his first day, forcing him to make a plan of where the school should be and making it all believable. With the help of his friends and other students who didn’t get into college, he made everyone come together and create everything from banners, dorm rooms, classroom, the dean’s office, etc to make everything believable. The next thing he did that showed leadership was finding and recruiting more people to join their school. From this he created real classes and organized groups that promoted learning. There are every type of non “normal” students at the South Harmon Institute of Technology. This includes a boy with ADD, an empty headed youngster, a punk music group, skateboarders, etc. All of these students were rejected because they do not conform or learn well in the normal classroom setting. Bartleby understood this and made interactive and hands-on classes which the students got to choose. They learned from each other which would never have happened without the leadership of Bartleby. 

The next character that shows leadership in the movie would be Monica Moreland. She was a lead character in the movie and the love interest of Bartleby. She initially attended a atual school near the fake university but was very inclined to transfer. It was really until the ending of the movie that she showed real leadership when they were in the court pleading to make the school real. She chose to speak up from an outside perspective to try and save the school. She advocated for the unique learning styles and claimed that she loved being there. This was leadership because she did not need to set up. She had a perfect life at her actual school, with a good looking boyfriend, popularity, and doing well in school. She knew that she wanted change and to go to the ​​South Harmon Institute of Technology. 

The last character that showed leadership was Sherman Schrader. He went to a real university and was pledging with a fraternity at the beginning of the movie. He was very smart and helped Bartleby with many of the logistics of making the school seem real. This included making the website and finding the fake dean. Back at his university, he was seeming to be an outcast and a joke to many of the popular students. He showed real leadership when he chose to help with friends and the school when push came to shove. He chose supporting his true friends over being in with the popular fraternity boys. 

When it comes to the education system of the ​​South Harmon Institute of Technology, they used a hands-on approach to learning. The students were able to choose their own curriculum and learned things such as meditations and culinary arts. They did not learn things such as intro to business or calculus, making the learning only specific to their interests. I believe that this is a great idea in some respects. While I think it is important to have the more “boring” classes, making the classes more hands-on and unique to those students who are looking to have typically offered majors, I find it to be very smart. Our current education system has us taking many classes that may not apply. An example of this would be the requirement to take classical history class when you major in marketing. I believe that if we were to mix the many ideas from our current and from the movie’s strategies on learning, we would be able to make students more interested in doing well and really learning. 

Overall, I found the movie Accepted to be a funny take on a reality many people experience. It highlights that we are all creative and that traditional education can push us into a box. There were so many examples of leadership throughout the entire movie. Bartleby led the whole idea and the student class into fighting to make it real. He inspired so many kids into supporting his cause and listened to them about their ideas for how it should be run. Monica and Sherman also showed leadership when they made efforts to help keep the school running and getting people to come together additionally. The schools were by far dysfunctional but the system would be very effective for those who don’t learn well under normal curriculum.

leadership’s Like a Game Reflection

Leadership is like a game in so many ways. There are many similarities between playing a game and your role in it compared to being a leader. In a game like werewolf, everything seems to be very collaborative. With time there are certain people that beg to speak up the most or start the ball rolling by accusing others of benign the wolf. Leadership is really just voicing your options to get the conversation started. It acts as a domino effect in a group and people will be more likely to follow someone who has a strong option and voices it regularly. In our class we were shown a video of a man that started to dance. He was dancing by himself until the next person decided to join him. By this man joining him, he started a domino effect of people joining until almost everyone was dancing with them. Both men, the one who danced first and the first man to join him, showed leadership. This applies to games as it takes the first person to say something and create the conversation and the next person to either agree or disagree with them to get others to actively participate. This can also be seen in other multiplayer games like mental blocks. In my group’s experience, I was the leader of the group. I found that I would create my perspective of the blocks first and then had everyone else edit mine until we came to a final product. I showed leadership in this instance by making the first move and creating a plan for the rest of the group. Leadership does always need to seem like one person is only running the show, but instead that they were able to excite or include everyone else to want to complete a particular task. Leadership is like a game because one person is leading or starting it. In a game that includes groups, someone makes the first move and starts to form the strategy of how to overcome and complete the task of the game. Leadership is the same in things such as business, as someone will come up with an idea and start the conversation or strategy. They are the same because they work hand in hand.

Material-Less Activity

What is the game:

  • The game is called survivor. You can play with a minimum of 5 players and there is no maximum. Players will stand in a circle and one the count of three everyone will look up and point at random players in the circle. If two people are pointing at each other then they will have to play rocks and paper scissors. Whichever player wins the game gets to stay in the circle and the player who loses will leave the circle. 


  1. No looking at the same person for two rounds in a row
  2. If players choose the same thing(ex: both choose rock) they will redo the game
  3. Players are allowed up to two alliances

Learning outcomes:

  1. Calculated Risk-Taking: Players need to take risks on who they will choose to point at; they will try and calculate the probability of the same person looking back at them
  2. Trust: When forming alliances, you need to learn trust in your friends or partners to not try and get you out
  3. Strategy: Players can choose to make alliances and you can strategize who you guys will try and get out

What Type of Gamer am I?

After completing the quiz on what type of gamer I am, I found that my board game motivations are high conflict, relaxed, grounded, and gregarious. The quiz compared four different types of motivation, Conflict, Social Fun, Strategy, and Immersion. In regards to conflict, I scored 77% and 63% in social manipulation. This means that I tend to be more competitive and enjoy games where players can take more hostile actions against other players. It also reported that I enjoy conformational mechanics which create a more intense and dynamic gameplay as the stakes are higher. My high social manipulation means that I enjoy playing psychological mind manes that are not determined by dice or a rulebook. I was not surprised by this information as my major is heavily influenced by psychology. I like putting on a poker face to try and convince others of a lie during gameplay. My strategy score was 1% which implies that I would prefer a more relaxed gameplay experience where the decisions do have much of a long term impact. I scored a 12% on discovery meaning that I prefer more traditional and familiar games. My need to win is at 82%, implying that I care alot about winning. I enjoy beating my competition and winning in the most important part of the game. The next section is Immersion, which involves going into the world of the game. I scored a 7% which implies that I would rather focus on the game mechanics and don’t like it when the theme begins to get too intrusive. The second motivation was Aesthetics, which I scored a 2%. This means that I do not care about the artwork and production value of the game. Lastly, I have scored my highest of 96% in Social fun. Gamers who score high on social fun means that they are more focused on having a good time with others, and the game is nearly a prop to get people to come together. In Cooperation i scored a 20% meaning that i prefer to go games that focus on individual decisions rather than working in a team. With Chance, I scored a 54%, meaning that I am very neutral on the option of luck in games and can play and enjoy a game if it is or isn’t in it. The last secondary motivation of Social fun is Accessibility, which I am scared of 94%. Players that score high prefer a game that can have a broad range of people pick up bandjoun. I prefer games that anyone can learn and play. Overall, as a gamer, I prefer a game that brings people together the most. WHile i still enjoy competition, I value having fun with my friends above all. 

What is the best type of game for my leadership style

Quiz Link:

When I was creating my quiz, I spent a lot of time researching different leadership styles and how they affect the things you enjoy, such as playing a game. When a person has an autocratic leadership style, they tend to want control over everything. Generally, an autocratic leader believes that they are the smartest person in the group and that they know more than their teammates. They would prefer to make all of the decisions with little to no input from others. A person with an authoritarian leadership style tends to be more confident. They prefer to set expectations and engage their team members. These leaders take time to explain what they are thinking and are open for suggestions to achieve their common goal. A person with a democratic leadership style is more likely to be more collaborative with their team members. They will seek their teammates’ opinions before making decisions and will do things to promote creativity to achieve their goals. The last leadership style is the Laissez-Faire leadership style. They are at the positive end of the spectrum compared to the previous three styles. They appear to trust their teammates and act more as an observer. A person with this type of leadership style will prefer to not overlook every detail and let the teammates collaborate freely. All of these leadership styles are different in their own ways which is why there are particular games that will cater to them.

After completing my quiz I had 10 participants take it and report their results and comments on the accuracy of their results. From my findings, my quiz had a 100% accuracy rate when calculating what type of leadership style they identified with. With my ten participants there reported to be two autocratics, two authoritatively, four democratic, and two Laissez-Faires leadership styles. 

The participants, Jessie and Olivia, reported that they received the autocratic leadership style. Both participants agreed with their results. Jessie believed that her results were accurate because she claimed to be a control freak in regards to group projects and working as a team. She tends to actively try to be a leader and take control at the beginning of teamwork to ensure that their goal is achieved as quickly and efficiently as possible. Olivia also believes that her results were accurate as she believes that she likes to be in charge of organizing everything. I shared my other possible results with Olivia and she thought she would be right in between an autocratic and authoritative leadership style but was not surprised to learn that she was more autocratic. She tends to want to be on top of all of work and feels that taking control allows her to make an outline for due dates and other important aspects of teamwork. I had the opportunity to explain the game I recommended in their results. The game Charterstone allows them to completely customize their town and then discover and unlock parts of your town to complete the village. They both agreed that they would enjoy this game because of the ability of controlling how it looks and the actions you are allowed to take in it. 

My next participants, Taylor and Kate M, reported that they received the authoritative leadership style. Both participants agreed that their results were accurate. Taylor believed that her results were accurate as she is mostly likely to take control early on to be able to facilitate group activities, but claims she isn’t very vocal about it at times. She loves to hear others’ ideas but finds that she would prefer for them to be run by her prior to any decision making. Kate M believed that her results were accurate as she enjoys telling her teammates what to do. On the other hand she does not like conflict at all, which is why she believed that her results made sense. She has a tendency to be in between a control freak and being very laid back when she feels like her teammates are efficiently doing their part. I also had the opportunity to explain the game results for the authoritative leadership style. The game with this leadership style is Forbidden island, a game where you have to work with a team to look for lost treasure while trying to survive. Taylor thought she would really enjoy this game as it will allow her to strategize moves for her whole team while Kate M thought she would enjoy it due to being able to control and voice her ideas for everyone’s move. 

My following participants include Mikayle, Erin, Kate H, and Katherine who reported to have received the Democratic leadership style. All of these participants have reported that their results were accurate. Mikayle believed that her results were accurate as she claimed to enjoy havingin and voice in the decision making but does not care for taking all of the control in the team dynamic. Erin believed her results were accurate because she likes to be the person who splits up the tasks for their goal between her teammates but does not enjoy leading everyone the entire time. Kate H believed her results were accurate as she really only cared that the work is benign split up evenly between all the team members. Katherine believed her results were accurate because she does not enjoy any type of conflict and tends to be shy when she has to take control in a group setting but she loves the idea of splitting up all of the work or tasks equally. After explaining their results and going further into what the game of their results was, they all agreed that it sounds interesting and would be willing to play it. The game that I recommended with a democratic leadership style was Mental Blocks. In this game they work as a team to try and complete a puzzle while haign restrictions of what you can do or see. This game is reliant on the entire group’s effort, making it the perfect game for their leadership style. 

My last participants, Teresa and Skyler, reported to have received the Laissez-Faire leadership style. They both strongly believe that their results were accurate. Teresa believed that her results were accurate because she tends to not care much about taking control in a group setting. She is more confident in her work when she is assigned a part of the task and does not admit about taking more work than needed. Skyuler believed her results were accurate; she has become more lazy when it comes to group work. She explained that she would have seen herself having a democratic leadership style in the past, but at this point in her life, she really only liked to do her assigned tasks. With the Laissez-Faire leadership style, the game that I have recommended was Pandemic. In Pandemic you have to work as a team to try and stop the spread of a disease. This game is perfect for them as they are only responsible for their own pieces and it is more relaxed than other games. They both agreed that they would be interested in trying the game as it seems like it would keep their interest but not take too much effort to play. Overall I found that all of my results were accurate and that the participants were interested in playing their recommended game that corresponds with their leadership style.

Sprocle Quiz – Can you pick the Leadership Ted Talk topics and the speakers?

Quiz Link:

When creating my quiz, I spent much time not only finding Ted Talks about leadership, but also Ted Talks that I found to be inspiring. I have chosen to create a quiz called “Can you pick the Leadership Ted Talk topics and the speakers?” which is about a select number of Ted Talks that discuss leadership. These speakers talk about a number of different aspects of leadership such as how it can be self-taught or how we need to be happy independently of work to be a good leader. When I was creating my quiz, I chose around ten different speakers that I was thinking about using and took a few notes on their message. From there I watched all of the Ted Talks and narrowed down who I thought had the most inspiring and captivating speeches. They included Drew Dudley, Roselinde Torres, Margaret Heffernan, Fields Wicker-Miurin, Derek Sivers, Shawn Achor, and Tim Harford. After this step I organized my speakers and my brief hint or overview of their Ted Talk to create my quiz. 

There are many reasons for why I chose these specific speakers in regards to their leadership message and how it could be applied to our class content and games I have played. The first speaker I chose was Drew Dudley. In his Ted Talk, Everyday Leadership,  he how he redefined leadership in a way that made him happier. He explains a story about a lollipop, and while it didn’t seem like a big deal even to remember, and how something so small had the power to change something. Dudley said that “as long as we keep leadership beyond us and make it about changing the world, we give ourselves an excuse not to expect it every day, from ourselves and from each other”. By this he means that we have the power to impact others and we need to start to value that impact. If you are able to truly understand that and redefine leadership like that, we can change everything. This Ted Talk was the most inspirational video as it can be applied to everything in your life. In regards to leadership in games, he explains that by doing anything, such as moving your game piece or communicating a direction you want to go in with your teammates, you are being a leader. 

The next Ted Talk was What It Takes to be a Great Leader, by Roselinde Torres. She speaks on her extensive knowledge of what makes a leader effective and proposed 2 questions that encourage critical thinking. These questions are “Where are you looking to anticipate the next change? What is the diversity measure of your network? Are you courageous enough to abandon the past?” Torres claims that great leaders take risks and dare to be different. Taking risks and trying different ideas, especially in a game, shows leadership and will attract followers. In the Ted Talk Dare to Disagree, by Margaret Heffernan, the speaker talks about how we must have disagreement in our team and promote it as a leader. She speaks on the “echo chambers” which means having people who only tell you what they think you want to hear. To be a leader you must promote and be willing to accept others disagreeing with you. This can be applied in games such as Mental Blocks where we all have a different perspective of the design. Having and promoting these ideas will lead to collaboration and better teamwork. Fields Wicker-Miurin shares how leadership comes from within on her Ted Talk Learning from Leadership’s Missing Manual. She explains that leadership is self-taught and that you could learn skills and qualities from the people around you. Games are similar in that you will learn skills and qualities from your teammates to eventually be confident in leading a game on your own.

The Ted Talk, How to Start a Movement, by Derek Sivers shares insight on how to start a movement. Leadership can be found everywhere, whether that is in a game or sitting on the grass with strangers. He shows that a leader makes the first move, but the second person to follow starts the movement. This can be applied in games as someone who decided to make a move first can influence others to do that same. The next Ted Talk was The Happy Secret to Better Work, by Shawn Achor. He says that we need to be happy independently of work, and only then will we be able to increase productivity and success. This idea can be applied to anything as the main idea is to just be confident in your own abilities. The last Ted Talk I included was Trial, Error, and the God Complex, by Tim Hartford. In his speech he explains the importance of trial and error in achieving success. He also talks about having a god complex, not being able to admit being wrong in any situation, will not bring results. A leader needs to understand that they can make mistakes and to use their experience to try again. Overall, all of these speakers share important knowledge about what it means to be a leader. 

In regards to the actual quiz, I found the results to be surprising. The average score was about three out of seven points. My first participant was Teresa who scored a three out of seven. The questions that she got correct were the speakers Dudley, Harford, and Silvers. I had the opportunity to talk to my participants on how they thought the quiz went and why they thought they got that score. Teresa explains her scoring was because she has only seen Dudleys speech and made educated guesses on the rest of the speakers. The next participant was Jessie who scored a three out of seven. She correctly answered Torres, Dudley, and Hartford and explained that she scored low because she had only seen clips of the majority of the Ted Talks and was having trouble remembering them. The Third participant, Mikayle, received a four out of seven, guessing correctly Wicker-Miurin, Dudley, Hartford, and Heffernan. She explained that she had previous knowledge of most of the speakers and had seen many clips of their Ted Talks on TikTok. The next participant was Taylor who scored a zero on the quiz. She explained that she has never seen any of the Ted Talks or even heard of any of the speakers. Erin was my next participant who scored a three out of seven. She correctly answered Sivers, Torres, and Heffernan. She explained that she had only heard of Torres and had guessed for the rest of them. Participant number six was Olivia who scored a one out of seven. She has not heard of any of the speakers and guessed all the questions. Kate H, participant seven, scored a three out of seven and correctly answered Hartford, Dudley, and Achor. She has watched most of the Ted Talks in her classes and knew a little about them. Participant number eight, Kate M, scored a five out of seven and correctly answered Hartford, Torres, Anchor, Wicker-Miurin, and Dudley. She was our highest scoring participant and explained that she has actually watched all of the Ted Talks with her dad. Participant nine, Katherine, scored a three out of seven correctly answering Dudley, Achor, and Hartford. She has only seen the three Ted Talks that she has gotten correct. My last participant, Skyler, scored a five out of seven, also being my highest scoring participant. She correctly answered Heffernan, Wicker-Miurin, Hartford, Torres, and Silvers. She explained that the reason she got a higher score was because she has watched all of the Ted Talks in her Freshman and Sophomore years. Overall, the results were much higher than what I expected from my participants. I was under the impression that my participants were going to get one or two right besides a possible outlier.